02 Mar Submission by Liceo Salvemini, Bari (IT)
Target: This document aims at analyzing the phenomenon of migration in Europe, especially in Southern Italy and also at suggesting available policies for the improvement of the living conditions both for the local population and emigrants.
Once chosen the theme of migration, we carried out a research to deepen and broaden our understanding of the problem. Our work shows that: from a historical point of view, the arrival of the first emigration begins in the 70’s with the onset of the oil crisis. Italy was chosen by immigrants who could not get to the rich countries of the Mid-Northern Europe because of the restrictive policies and the closure of borders by the most industrialized states. During the ’70s and the first half of the ‘80s, the State declined to decide on immigration, giving market forces the task of regulating migration flows and local authorities and welfare organizations the task of dealing with emergencies by canteens, dormitories and accommodation centers.
Only at the end of 1986 we have the first law on immigration, period during which the state expresses the will to regulate emigration flows, taking into account the rights of foreigners. From the 90s up to now, the evolution of emigration has been marked by meaningful events such as the fall of the Berlin Wall. The European Union (EU) approved a plan for the temporary relocation of asylum seekers who were already in Europe. The ratio takes into account four parameters: GDP (Gross Domestic Product), populations, the level of unemployment and refugees already present inside the national territory. The Constitution of the International Organization for Migration was accepted on 19 October 1953 and amended on 20 May 1987, it recognizes the need to promote the cooperation of States and international organizations, government and non-government, to grant consultation on migration issues, not only as to the migration process but also in relation to each situation and need of the migrant as an individual human being.
The commitments of the European Council are three:
1. To organize legal immigration to take into account the priorities, needs and reception capacities determined by each Member State, and to encourage integration;
2. To control illegal immigration by ensuring that illegal immigrants can go back to native countries or to a transit one;
3. To make border controls more effective.
Afterwards we have focused our attention on the issue of immigration in our area and we have come to a conclusion: in the world there are many migrants that, in order to live peacefully, they are forced to escape from their countries although aware of having to face many difficulties.
To accommodate immigrants in Italy there are:
- 14 shelters (Cpsa: centri di primo soccorso e accoglienza- Center for first aid and hospitality, Cda: centri di accoglienza- Center for first assistance, CARA: Centri di accoglienza per richiedenti asilo- Immigrants asking for political refugee status).
- 5 Center for Identification and Deportation (Centri di identificazione ed espulsione).
- 1861 temporary structures.
- 430 SPRAR (Sistema di Protezione per Richiedenti Asilo e Rifugiati) for Refugees and Asylum Seekers Protection System.
Particularly in our city, Bari, there are one CARA, one CIE and three SPRAR.
After a deep study on the issue we have decided to ask for the opinion of:
1- The local population by carrying out a survey made up of three simple questions:
- What can European Union or Italian Government do to help the migrants?
- What can we offer to young migrants?
- What alternatives we have from the closure of the borders?
To encourage the spread, we have chosen some social networks such as Facebook and other blogs. As soon as reached the deadline for completion of the questionnaire, we have collected all the data and we have inserted them in the following charts.
2- Someone who has personally experienced the phenomenon of migration.
The young man is called Godwin, a boy who emigrated from Nigeria and member of the association “Mama Africa”, who agreed to meet us to talk about his experiences.
This interview showed that migrants are not uneducated or “different”, but they are people like us and it is unfair to discriminate them the same and not give them some opportunities as any other citizen.
Furthermore, we have presented to Godwin our project and we got positive comments from him.
Based on the results obtained from the questionnaire and from meeting Godwin, we have decided to promote integration, not proposing a law, but proposing a project that will be based mainly on cultural exchange and will cover the following topics:
- fine arts
Our project, entitled: “Common rights for a common world”, it will have two components, the former formative and the latter competitive.
Therefore, in the first phase, courses will be run on the topics mentioned above. They will implement an intercultural exchange bringing to the knowledge and understanding of any different traditions and customs.
The second part will see participants compete in different tests during which they will put into practice what they have learned.
These tests will be overseen by an experienced jury.
Each school will be able to join the project by submitting an application in order to arrange the different courses, participating in a competition notice.
School facilities, so-called “Point centers”, will be selected according to the facilities available to them (for example: high school specializing in music, music courses), and they would receive funds from the European Union for the implementation of the project.
Once schools receive the funds, individually, they will have to take charge of the organization of the courses and the final race.
In the end we have decided to make a video for the promotion of our project about culture and tolerance that can be found attached to this document.